Northern Red-Bellied Snake

Storeria occipitomaculata occipitomaculata


Photo of a northern red-bellied snake on a rock.
The northern red-bellied snake usually has three light spots at the nape of the neck. These sometimes fuse to form a collar.
Jim Rathert

Colubridae (nonvenomous snakes) in the order Squamata (lizards and snakes)


The northern red-bellied snake is a small woodland snake. It is either gray brown or reddish brown, normally with 4 narrow, dark stripes, a faint light tan stripe down the middle of the back, or some combination of this striping. The head is usually darker than the body, and the nape of the neck has 3 light spots, which occasionally fuse to form a tan collar behind the head. The belly is yellow, orange, red, or occasionally pink.

Similar species: This species is sometimes mistaken for a young copperhead and needlessly killed. Copperheads, however, are stout-bodied and have hourglass-shaped markings on the back, vertical pupils in the eyes, a sensory pit between each nostril and eye, and, sometimes, especially in young copperheads, a yellow tail tip.


Length: 8 to 10 inches.


Photo of a northern red-bellied snake viewed from above.
Northern Red-Bellied Snake
The northern red-bellied snake is small and generally gray brown or reddish brown on top, bright red or orange below.


Photo of a northern red-bellied snake basking on a rock.
Northern Red-Bellied Snake
The northern red-bellied snake hides beneath rocks, boards, scattered tree bark, logs, and other objects. Sometimes it basks in the sun.
Habitat and conservation

The northern red-bellied snake is secretive and occurs in moist forests where there is ample shelter to hide under. Active from late March through October, it spends most of its time hiding beneath rocks, boards, scattered tree bark, logs, and other objects. Sometimes it basks in the sun. It is not known to bite and is completely inoffensive and gentle to handle. Freshly captured, it will secrete a musky odor from glands at the base of the tail. Sometimes it plays dead.


Food includes earthworms, forest slugs, and, occasionally, soft-bodied insects. This species also eats land snails. Some researchers suggest that the blunt head and elongated teeth of this snake and the closely related midland brownsnake helps them to grip and tug persistently on a snail’s body until the snail fatigues and can be pulled out of its shell.

Northern Red-Bellied Snake Distribution Map
Distribution in Missouri

Statewide, except for several northwestern counties.

Life cycle

Courtship and mating take place in the spring, summer, or autumn. The young are born (the mothers do not lay eggs) during late summer or early autumn. A litter can contain 1–21 young, which are about 3–4 inches long at birth.

Human connections

Many snake species are burdened with unfair, undying myths that paint them to be much more dangerous and harmful than they are. But persecuting this small, harmless species is especially unjust, for it results from ignorance and fear. Support nature education. Speak out on behalf of snakes.

Ecosystem connections

As predators, these snakes control populations of the invertebrates they consume. But snakes are preyed upon themselves. Their defenseless newborns are gobbled by numerous animals. The adults, being small and defenseless except for smearing stinky stuff on their captors, are eaten by many animals.