Western Mudsnake

Farancia abacura reinwardtii
Species of Conservation Concern
Other Common Name
Western Mud Snake; Hoop Snake; Stinging Snake

Colubridae (colubrid snakes) in the order Squamata (lizards and snakes)


The western mudsnake is a medium-sized, iridescent glossy snake of Missouri's southeastern swamps. It is shiny, iridescent black on top, and the belly is red, pink, and orange with some black spots and banding. The tail of most specimens ends in a sharp point, which is completely harmless and cannot break the skin of humans.


Length: 40–54 inches.


Video of a western mudsnake.
Habitat and conservation

This species lives in and near the large natural cypress swamps in the southeastern corner of the state, taking shelter under logs or in animal burrows. It prefers shallow areas with lots of rotten or water-soaked logs. Because of its habitat restrictions, it is vital we preserve our last remaining natural swamps in the Bootheel.


Although it occasionally eats frogs, tadpoles, and fish, this snake is specialized for eating amphiumas and lesser sirens, which are both elongated, eel-like aquatic amphibians. These slippery creatures writhe and squirm when molested and coil into a ball. The mudsnake, however, uses its unusually pointed tail to prod its prey, causing it to uncoil for easier swallowing. Contrary to an old myth, the pointy tail does not have a “stinger.” It cannot even break human skin.

Western Mudsnake Distribution Map
Distribution in Missouri

Restricted to the natural swamps of the Mississippi Lowlands of southeastern Missouri.


A Species of Conservation Concern. Because this species requires a natural swamp habitat, it is important that Missouri’s last remaining native cypress swamps be preserved.

Life cycle

They presumably breed in the spring, probably April or May. Eggs are laid in animal burrows or in rotten logs. There are 11–50 eggs in a clutch, and females remain with the eggs until they hatch, in August or September.

Human connections

Missouri is a state blessed with many different types of habitats, each with its own unique combinations of species. Just as one finds prairie chickens on the prairie, catfish in a big river, and persimmons in the Ozarks, there are mudsnakes in our Bootheel swamps. All are natural treasures.

Ecosystem connections

The western mudsnake is part of the unique natural community of cypress swamps in the Mississippi Lowlands. It, the amphiumas it preys on, and the creatures that in turn prey on it all thrive in our natural cypress swamps.