Photo of a clump of hydrilla held in a hand
Leslie J. Mehrhoff, University of Connecticut, Bugwood.org

Hydrocharitaceae (frogbits)


A submerged aquatic plant rooted to the bottom with potato-like tubers attached to a root structure. Stems branch little until they reach the surface; just under the surface it branches profusely, forming thick mats. Leaves narrow, less than ¼ inch wide, ½-¾ inch long, not needlelike, finely toothed, in whorls of 5 (or 3-8). Leaf midrib is often red. The potato-like tuber attached to the root structure is a good way to identify it.

Similar species: Two species of Elodea are Missouri natives: Both lack tubers; the leaves are mostly in whorls of 3 or in pairs; and stems sparsely branched or unbranched. The non-native giant elodea or anacharis (Egeria densa), a popular aquarium plant, is sparsely branched, lacks tubers, has leaves in whorls of 4-6, and in Missouri occurs only sporadically and locally when it escapes from cultivation. Coontail (Ceratophyllum demersum) has needlelike, forked leaves and is bushy and heavily branched throughout.


Stem length: can exceed 26 feet.


Photo of small hydrilla plants with ruler for scale
Hydrilla Plants with Ruler


Photo of three potato-like tubers of hydrilla plant
Hydrilla “Potatoes”


Photo of several hydrilla stems just below surface of water
Hydrilla Below Water Surface


Photo of big clump of hydrilla stems tangled around a boat motor
Hydrilla on Boat Motor


Photo of whole hydrilla plants out of water
Whole Hydrilla Plants Out of Water


Photo of hydrilla infestation
Hydrilla Infestation


Photo of hydrilla stem showing leaf whorl with five leaves
Hydrilla Leaf Whorl
Habitat and conservation

A native of Eurasia, this submerged, rooted aquatic plant forms large, branching masses close to the water surface. It can grow in deeper water than coontail. It invaded Florida in the 1950s from introduced aquarium plants. It spreads via dumped aquarium water, hitching rides on boats, boat trailers, and other gear, and as a contaminant when people introduce other water plants. Waterfowl can transport it from infested states. Small fragments of stems can flow downstream to form new colonies.

image of Hydrilla distribution map
Distribution in Missouri

First discovered in Greene, Dallas, and Warren counties, but because it can spread quickly, potentially statewide. Eradication efforts are under way, but it’s critical for Missourians to learn to identify it and prevent further spread.


Hydrilla now infests states in the south and southeast and the East and West coasts. Americans pay millions of dollars a year trying to stop or delay its spread. Eradication requires several years of season-long control. A single herbicide treatment won’t kill it, nor will a single year of several treatments. It grows rapidly and easily reproduces via cuttings. A single whorl of leaves is enough to start a new colony. The tubers and overwintering buds can survive in a dormant stage for years.

Human connections

Hydrilla spoils fishing and aquatic recreation and blocks water intake systems. It’s far easier to prevent its spread than to get rid of it once it’s arrived. Clean and dry boating and fishing gear before moving to a new body of water. Never release an aquarium’s contents into natural waters.

Ecosystem connections

Hydrilla is more aggressive than our native aquatic plants such as coontail. When it covers the surface in a thick mass, it blocks sunlight below, harming the native aquatic plant and animal community, including fish populations and even the water chemistry.