Barn Owl

Tyto alba
Species of Conservation Concern

Tytonidae (barn owls) in the order Strigiformes (owls)


Barn owls are cinnamon and gray above, white to buffy below, with small black spots; legs long and eyes dark. The heart-shaped facial disk has caused them to be described as the “monkey-faced owl.” Voice is harsh, with screeching, hissing, barking and clicking sounds. Highly nocturnal. Spends day secluded in rafters, behind hay bales, etc.


Length: 16 inches (tip of bill to tip of tail); wingspan: 3 1/2 to 4 feet.

Habitat and conservation

Open woodlands, pastures and croplands—landscapes with grain to harbor good rodent populations. Commonly nest in old barns, grain elevators, cotton gins, grain storage buildings and occasionally hollow trees. Mortality is often high during hard winters, but even though populations may temporarily decline, they can repopulate an area quickly. Many landowners take advantage of these owls’ rodent-hunting skills by putting up boxes so barn owls can nest without entering a building.


Primary food is small rodents, but also eats birds, insects, bats and reptiles. Nocturnal foragers, they fly slowly across grasslands searching for prey.

image of Barn Owl Distribution Map
Distribution in Missouri

Statewide. (This species is one of the most widespread of all birds, found throughout much of the world.)


Rare permanent resident. A Species of Conservation Concern in Missouri, where their populations are vulnerable.

Life cycle

These nocturnal predators often wait until several hours after dark before emerging from their roosts. Nesting may occur in any month of the year. There are usually 5–10 eggs in a clutch. These are incubated for about a month. About 7 weeks after hatching, the young are ready to fledge, but they practice foraging with their parents for another week or so before leaving the area. Life expectancy is only 1 or 2 years.

Human connections

Because of their effectiveness at hunting rodents, these owls perform a great service to farmers and others in the grain business who continually face rodent pests. Barn owls are encouraged worldwide for this reason.

Ecosystem connections

With their ability to hunt by sound—in complete darkness—as well as by sight, barn owls are efficient mousers and do much to keep populations of those prolific breeders in check. Meanwhile, opossums, raccoons and other owls feed on barn owls and their eggs and young.