Red buckeye is a shrub or (less often) a small tree with a rather dense crown and short branches.
Leaves are opposite, palm-shaped compound with 5 leaflets; leaflets 3–6 inches long, lance-shaped or inverted egg-shaped, coarsely toothed; upper surface shiny, dark green, smooth with a few hairs on the veins; lower surface paler, ranging from smooth to having matted hairs.
Bark is smooth on young branches; on old trunks roughened into short plates that flake off in small, thin scales.
Twigs are green, gray or brown, drooping with upcurved ends.
Flowers April–June, clustered along an axis 4–8 inches long; flowers red, ¾–1½ inches long, tube-shaped with 2 upright and 2 lateral petal lobes unequal in length; stamens mostly shorter than the upper petal lobes.
Fruits September–November, 1–2 inches wide, leathery, somewhat globe- or egg-shaped, light brown, smooth, finely pitted, splitting into 3 parts; seeds 1–3, rounded or flattened by pressure against each other, shiny, light to dark brown.
Similar species: Red buckeye and Ohio buckeye are both found in Missouri. You can distinguish red buckeye by its having usually 5 leaflets (not 7), its red (not greenish-yellow) flowers, and the absence of any spines on its fruit hulls. Although both buckeyes are cultivated statewide, red buckeye grows in the wild only in our southeastern counties.