Peppery Milky

Lactarius piperatus



White cap; gills densely crowded; bleeds white; has a spicy-hot taste. Grows scattered in deciduous woods. July–September. Cap convex, developing a sunken, funnel-shaped center; white to cream-colored, becoming tan with age; flesh white; texture smooth to slightly wrinkled. Latex white and abundant, tasting spicy-hot. Gills narrow; spacing crowded; white to pale cream; gills attached. Stalk straight, sometimes tapering at the base; white; texture dry with a white bloom. Spore print white. Spores magnified are elliptical, ornamented.

Lookalikes: Other white Lactarius species.


Cap width: 2–6 inches; stalk length: ¾–3½ inches; stalk width: ½–1 inch.


Photo of peppery milky mushroom with cut gills showing milky sap
Peppery Milky (Gills)

Peppery Milky

Four white mushrooms clustered on a forest floor. Their caps are upturned and have captured twigs and leaf litter..
Peppery Mily mushrooms at Glassberg Family Conservation Area
Habitat and conservation

Grows scattered in deciduous woods. Eating raw wild mushrooms is never recommended, but if you think you might have found a Lactarius piperatus (that is, if your mushroom fits the description as an all-white funnel-shaped mushroom with very crowded white gills), you can touch a tiny drop of the "milk" to your tongue, then spit it out. If it is spicy-hot, you have a peppery milky!

image of Peppery Milky distribution map
Distribution in Missouri



Considered edible. While this is an edible mushroom, it is really too peppery to eat and enjoy. However, it can be dried and ground to a powder to use like pepper.

Life cycle

This species is mycorrhizal: It exists most of the time as a network of cells (mycelium) connected to tree roots, in a symbiotic relationship with the tree. (Many trees fare poorly without their fungal partners.) When ready to reproduce, the mycelium sends up the mushroom — this is the reproductive structure. Spores are produced in these structures and are released to begin new mycelia elsewhere. The mycelium of a mushroom can live for decades.

Human connections

Humans have eaten mushrooms for thousands of years, in many cultures, for various purposes. Sometimes they are eaten as food or for medicinal properties. This mushroom can be used as a seasoning. Be absolutely sure of your identifications before you consume wild mushrooms!

Ecosystem connections

This is one of many fungus species that help nourish forest trees through symbiosis. The netlike fibers of the fungus cover the surface of a tree’s roots, increasing the surface area and the roots’ ability to absorb water and nutrients. In return, the tree shares nutrients with the fungus.