Mayfly Larvae

There are hundreds of species in North America.
Other Common Name
Mayfly Nymphs; Mayfly Naiads
Family

Various families in the order Ephemeroptera (mayflies)

Description

Mayfly larvae (also called naiads or nymphs) are slender and soft-bodied, like adults, though they lack wings, have a series of leaflike or feathery external gills attached along the sides or on the top rear portion of the abdomen, have smaller eyes than adults, and often have a flattened head that helps them to adhere to rocks in fast-flowing water. Nymphs possess 3 (sometimes 2) cerci (antenna-like appendages extending from the tip of the abdomen).

Adult mayflies are slender, soft-bodied, with four membranous, extensively veined wings held upright and together (like a butterfly). The forewings are much longer and often overlap the hindwings. When perching, the front pair of legs are often held outward. They have short antennae and large compound eyes. There are 2 long, threadlike cerci.

Key Identifiers
  • Slender, rounded or flattened, soft-bodied.
  • Legs 6, jointed, with 1 or 0 claws per leg.
  • A series of leaflike or feathery external gills attach along the sides of or atop the rear portion of the abdomen.
  • Have smaller eyes than adults.
  • Head usually flattened.
  • Possess 3 (sometimes 2)  long, antenna-like cerci extending from the tip of the abdomen.
  • The cerci are usually all held level against the ground.
Size

Length: ½ to 1 inch (does not include cerci or other appendages).

mayfly_naiad_habitat_11-08-12.jpg

Photo of a mayfly naiad crawling on rock underwater
Mayfly Naiad Crawling on Rock Underwater

35-01-2013.jpg

Pseudiron Mayfly
Pseudiron Mayfly
This mayfly nymph is probably the species Pseudiron centralis. They're sometimes called "crabwalker mayflies."

Flatheaded_Mayfly_Nymph_2-4-16.jpg

Photo of a flatheaded mayfly nymph clinging to rock lifted out of water.
Flatheaded Mayfly Nymph
This nymph is in the family Heptageniidae, the flatheaded mayflies. It's hard to see the gills on its abdomen, since it was pulled out of the water and they are collapsed against the abdomen. But you can see the 3 cerci filaments at its hind end.

mayfly_adult_11-08-12.jpg

Photo of a mayfly
Mayfly (Adult)

mayfly.jpg

Photo of adult mayfly on a leaf
Mayfly (Adult) On Leaf

mayfly_brunet2012_9128.jpg

image of a Mayfly
Mayfly (Adult) Perched Under Leaf
Habitat and conservation

Mayfly naiads play important roles in aquatic ecosystems, eating algae and other small items and being eaten by larger animals. Often they are found clinging to rocks in fast-flowing streams with well-oxygenated water. The name of the order, Ephemeroptera, is from Greek words for “short-lived” (as in “ephemeral”) and “wing” (the “-ptera” part): As winged adults, mayflies only live a few days. The adults’ only function is to reproduce. Their swarms often provoke feeding frenzies among fish.

Foods

Different species of mayflies eat different things in their aquatic immature stages, but most creep around on rocks in lakes, ponds, streams, or at river edges, eating algae and other small plants. Once they float up to the surface and molt into a winged adult, they have only vestigial (remnant) mouthparts and cannot eat or drink.

Distribution in Missouri

Statewide.

Status

Members of this order of insects are common throughout the state near ponds and streams. Three species of mayflies are listed as Missouri Species of Conservation Concern and thus are vulnerable to extirpation from our state: One is these is Baetisca obesa, which has no common name; the other two are Frison's serratellan mayfly (Serratella frisoni) and a heptageniid mayfly (Stenonema bednariki).

Life cycle

Mayflies are the only insect to have two “adult” molts. They begin life as eggs laid on the surface of the water that sink to the bottom. The aquatic nymphs of mayflies (naiads) and creep around rocks and vegetation. After months or years of growth (depending on the species), they float to the surface and molt to a winged but sexually immature subadult. Often within hours, another molt occurs and the final stage emerges — the reproductive adults which live for only days or hours.

Human connections

In places where mayflies synchronize their maturation and mating cycles, appearing in swarms, they usually cause fish to swarm, too, and anglers create fishing flies to resemble adult mayflies. Where swarms are especially large, they can be a nuisance and cause problems for motorists.

Ecosystem connections

All life stages of mayflies are favorite foods for fish such as trout, bass, and many others, as well as smaller aquatic predators in the food chain. Adult mayflies are also eaten by terrestrial predators such as spiders and birds.