Downy Serviceberry

Amelanchier arborea

Downy_Serviceberry_Amelanchier_arborea.jpg

Illustration of downy serviceberry leaves, flowers, fruits.
Downy Serviceberry (Amelanchier arborea).
Paul Nelson
Edible
Other Common Name
Common Service Berry; Juneberry; Shadbush; Sarviss Berry; Sarviss Tree; Shadblow; Sugar Plum
Family

Rosaceae (roses)

Description

Downy serviceberry is a tall shrub or small tree with a narrow, rounded crown.

Leaves are alternate, simple, oval, 2–5 inches long; finely toothed with a pointy tip, medium green; in autumn, turning gold and orange, often with reds and greens, too.

Bark is light gray and smooth when young; dark gray with shallow grooves and long ridges with age.

Flowers March–May, often before the leaves emerge; silky-hairy; slightly fragrant; petals 5, bright white, strap-shaped, wavy, with a space between them (petals not crowded together); clusters drooping or erect.

Fruits June–July; round, reddish-purple berries, 1/3 to 1/2 inch in diameter, tasteless or sweet, borne on long stalks; seeds small and numerous.

Similar plants: Low serviceberry or low shadbush (A. humilis) also occurs in Missouri; it grows in clumps and its leaves have coarse teeth and blunt tips. At least 4 other Amelanchier species have been introduced for landscaping purposes. 'Autumn Brilliance' is a popular hybrid between downy serviceberry and A. grandiflora; it has a multistemmed, shrubby growth habit.

Size

Height: to 40 feet; spread to 35 feet. Usually much smaller.

downy_serviceberry1.jpg

downy serviceberry
Downy Serviceberry

serviceberry_blossom.jpg

Serviceberry Blossom
Serviceberry Blossom

serviceberry.jpg

Serviceberry
Serviceberry

serviceberry.jpg

Image of downy serviceberry.
Downy Serviceberry

service_berry.jpg

Serviceberry
Serviceberry

Downy Serviceberry

A cluster of white flowers erupt from a red branch of a downy serviceberry.
Downy Serviceberry at Painted Rock Conservation Area
Habitat and conservation

Occurs in open, rocky woods and bluffs, usually on well-drained slopes. Often associated with northern red oak, black oak, white oak, and flowering dogwood. It is one of the first of Missouri's woody plants to bloom in spring, with showy white flowers that appear before the leaves. Serviceberry is increasingly used in landscaping for its showy white flowers and edible red fruit (which attracts birds), and a number of cultivars are available.

image of Downy Serviceberry Serviceberry distribution map
Distribution in Missouri

Grown naturally in most of the state except for the northwest corner; cultivated statewide.

Status

Common through much of the eastern United States. This attractive plant has received many common names: downy serviceberry, downy juneberry (or June berry), downy shadbush, sarviss berry, sarviss tree, shadblow, common serviceberry, and sugar plum. Many Missourians know it simply as serviceberry. Some people have explained the unusual name by noting that the plant's bloom time (early in spring soon after the thaw) coincides with the ability for circuit-riding preachers to be able to travel again, providing religious services for people. A similar hypothesis holds that the bloom time coincided with the ability to hold burials (and burial services) that had been put on hold until the ground was thawed. However, the word "service" is actually a corruption of the original word "sorbus," the original Roman name of an Old World plant that bears similar fruit, which in Old English became "syrfe" and has been called "service" in England since the 1500s. The name "shadbush" did come from the bloom time, however: it blooms in early spring, when the shad fish run in New England streams.

Human connections

An increasingly popular small tree or shrub for landscaping due to its pretty white springtime flowers, attractive summer foliage, and gold, orange, green, and red autumn colors. The berries can be sweet and great for baking and snacking; at a minimum, they can attract many birds to your yard!

Ecosystem connections

At least 35 species of birds eat the berries, and at least a dozen types of mammals eat the berries or browse the twigs and foliage. Serviceberries bloom for only a few weeks, but as early bloomers, they provide nectar to bees and other insects just emerging from winter hibernation.