Coyote

Canis latrans

coyote_0007.jpg

coyote walking through grassland
Noppadol Paothong
Family

Canidae (dog family) in the Order Carnivora

Description

The upperparts of a coyote are light gray or dull yellow, with outer hairs tipped with black. The backs of the ears are reddish and the muzzle yellowish. The top of the tail is colored like the animal’s back, usually with a black tip and whitish below near the base, yellowish toward the tip. The front legs are whitish; the outer sides of the hind legs are reddish, with the inner sides whitish. The throat and belly are white to pale gray. The iris of the eye is tawny. The sexes look very much alike.

Size

Total length: 39–54 inches; tail length: 10–16 inches; weight: 18–30 pounds.

coyote_portrait.jpg

Photo of a coyote, closeup of head
Coyote
Coyotes raise a ruckus with their howling, but Missouri's largest wild dog generally does not attack people.

coyote_eating_squirrel.jpg

Coyote eating a squirrel
Coyote
A coyote eats a gray squirrel during a snow storm.

Coyote carrying canada goose egg

Coyote carrying canada goose egg
Coyote carrying canada goose egg in Lincoln Co.
Coyote carrying canada goose egg in Lincoln Co.

Coyote

Audio of coyote sounds

FG-0008_Coyote.mp4

Video of a coyote in the wild.

chupacabra_2012.jpg

bony, distressed-looking dog or coyote with no hair
The Legendary Chupacabra ... or a Mangy Coyote?
This coyote is suffering from severe sarcoptic mange and malnutrition.
Habitat and conservation

Coyotes live in semiopen, brushy country, along timber edges, and in open farmlands, occupying territories ranging from about 9 to nearly 30 square miles. Because certain coyotes develop a habit of damaging livestock and poultry, effective control focuses on these particular troublemakers. For nuisance control methods, contact the Department. Additionally, coyotes have been harvested for furs, and hunters and trappers may pursue them during furbearer season.

Foods

Rabbits and mice make up almost two-thirds of the coyote diet, with other animal foods and plants (such as persimmons) making up the rest. Coyotes eat carrion as well as prey they kill themselves. While 10 to 20 percent of the diet may represent a loss to humans (livestock and poultry), the rest is neutral or beneficial.

image of Coyote Distribution Map
Distribution in Missouri

Increasing throughout the state; most abundant in grassland habitat in northern and western Missouri.

Status

Common and generally increasing throughout the state.

Life cycle

Coyotes are nocturnal but are also seen in daylight. Coyotes live singly, in male-female pairs or in family groups. They use complex expressions and postures to communicate. They mate in early spring; litters of usually 5 to 7 pups are typically born in late April or May. Both parents care for the young, which remain with the family as they learn to hunt and behave as adults. Coyotes can breed with domestic dogs; their offspring may resemble one or both of the parents.

Human connections

Coyotes control rodent pests. Coyote pelts, used for trimming coats and scarves, are durable and attractive and have been increasing in value. Coyotes are often unjustly blamed for livestock losses caused by free-running dogs.

Ecosystem connections

Coyotes feed on smaller animals and thus keep their populations in check; they also kill old, injured, sick animals unfit to survive. As scavengers, they eat carrion and therefore help clean the woods and fields.

Signs & Tracks

Front track:

  • 2½ inches long
  • 4 toes.

Hind track:

  • 2¼ inches long
  • 4 toes.

Other notes:

  • Common throughout Missouri.
  • Coyote tracks are smaller than most people expect. They are the shape and size of an egg.
  • Weight is focused on the middle two toes, which are often slightly pinched inward, with the two middle claw marks very close.
  • The middle two claws usually leave marks. The first and fourth claws rarely show, unless in mud, and these can be close enough to the two middle pads as to be hard to see.
  • Look for an X shape in the negative space between the pads.
  • Stride is 18–22 inches between prints (walking).
  • Tracks can be in a more or less straight line.
  • Distinguish from similar-sized domestic dogs: coyote tracks overlap (they walk in their own footprints), and the prints are 18–22 inches apart. Medium-sized dogs’ tracks don’t overlap, and they are 6–8 inches apart. Also, domestic dogs tend to meander and not travel in a straight line.
  • Scats often contain hair and are often placed in middle of a trail or other prominent place.
  • Listen at evening, dawn, dusk for characteristic barks, yelps, and yaps, sometimes in chorus.
Illustration of a single coyote track