Caney Mountain Cave Crayfish

Faxonius stygocaneyi (formerly Orconectes stygocaneyi)

Caney_Mountain_Cave_Crayfish_F_ stygocaneyi_William Elliott_resized_10-18-17.jpg

Photo of a Caney Mountain cave crayfish out of water on a wet, red-coated cave rock.
One of three cave crayfish in Missouri, the Caney Mountain cave crayfish is known from only one cave system in Ozark County.
William Elliott
Species of Conservation Concern

Cambaridae (freshwater crayfish) in the order Decapoda (shrimp, crabs, and lobsters)


The Caney Mountain cave crayfish is blind and white, with long, narrow pincers and very long antennae. Identification of this species is primarily by location, as our other two cave crayfish are found in different cave systems in southern Missouri.


Length: about 2–2½ inches.


Photo of a Caney Mountain cave crayfish held in the palm of a caver's muddy glove.
Caney Mountain Cave Crayfish
The Caney Mountain cave crayfish is a rare species with a very restricted range and is vulnerable to extirpation. Keeping groundwater clean is a key to its survival.

Caney Mountain Cave Crayfish-20200803-212153.jpg

A small white crayfish held in a hand. It is about as long as the first two knuckles of a person's ring finger.
Crayfish found at Caney Mountain Conservation Area
Habitat and conservation

Like other cave crayfish, this species lives in cave streams and underground lakes and may sometimes be collected at the mouths of springs. The Caney Mountain cave crayfish was collected for the first time in 1999 and is known from only one location. It is the only cave species of this genus found west of the Mississippi River. This is a rare species with a very restricted range, and it is vulnerable to extirpation. Keeping groundwater clean is a key to its survival.


Crayfish are generally omnivores, eating a wide variety of plant and animal materials. Because green plants are scarce inside caves, this species undoubtedly eats a larger proportion of animal material (as a predator of live animals, or a scavenger of dead ones) than other crayfish.

Caney Mountain Cave Crayfish
Distribution in Missouri

Known only from a single cave system in Ozark County, Missouri.


A Species of Conservation Concern in Missouri. Endemic to (only found in) our state. The presence of this rare species in a single cave system may be explained by crayfish distributional patterns hundreds of thousands of years ago, before the Mississippi River took its present form. Apparently, an ancestral non-cave crayfish species was wind-ranging, but as the river and other streams changed their flow patterns and carved valleys into what would become the Ozarks, populations of the crayfish became isolated from each other, with some being isolated in caves, with this species as one of the descendants. There might be other relict Faxonius cave species that simply haven't been found yet.

Life cycle

Detailed knowledge of this species reproductive cycle is not known. Crayfish molt as they grow, discarding the old shell and replacing it with a new, larger one. After mating, the female carries the eggs, then the young, under her abdomen, attached to swimmerets, which are small appendages on the bottom of the abdomen.

Human connections

Surface water from rain washes pollutants such as fertilizers, pesticides, and other substances into the groundwater, which eventually seeps into cave systems and into our drinking water as well. Many people believe that humans are obligated to care for the natural world, and curbing pollutants is part of that responsibility.

Ecosystem connections

Crayfish eat a variety of materials, including living and dead animal life, and this cave crayfish undoubtedly feeds on cave isopods and other animals that live in the streams in caves. Crayfish, living or dead, are in turn an important food for many other animals.