Sander vitreus


Image of walleye
Joseph R. Tomelleri. Used with permission.

Percidae (perches) in the order Perciformes (perch-like fishes)


A slender, spiny-rayed fish with 2 separate dorsal fins. Mouth large, the upper jaw extending about to hind edge of eye. Jaws and roof of mouth have prominent teeth. The hind edge of the bone just in front of the gill cover is saw-toothed. Tail is forked. Back and sides yellowish or olive-brown with darker mottlings and blotches. Belly white. Two separate dorsal fins. Spinous dorsal fin streaked and blotched with black, usually with a large black blotch near bases of the last few spines. Very reflective eye.


Adult length: 12–28 inches; weight: 8 ounces to 8 pounds. Much larger specimens can occur.


Image of a walleye


Video of walleye in the wild.
Habitat and conservation

Inhabits open water of lakes and reservoirs and the pools of streams. In the Current River, most are found in pools 12 feet or deeper where the bottom is broken up by boulders or submerged logs. By day they stay in these depths. At night they move to shallower water.


Fry eat small crustaceans and insects. Insects, particularly mayflies, are a significant food item throughout life, but fish are the principal food of adults. Walleyes are nocturnal and retreat to deep water during the day. The opaque “walleyed” appearance of this species is a result of their eyes’ adaptation for seeing in low light.

image of Walleye distribution map
Distribution in Missouri

Found in large streams throughout Missouri and occurs naturally or via stocking in many reservoirs.


Numbers of walleye are increasing in this state due to increased stocking over the past decade.

Life cycle

Walleye are one of the first fish to spawn in spring. Spawning typically begins when water temperatures exceed 46°F. Mature walleye spawn on gravel shoals of tributary streams that flow into large reservoirs and on rocky points or along the rocky face of dams within the reservoir. Eggs are deposited along the rocks and left to develop without any parental care.

Human connections

Excellent sporting qualities, large size and firm, tender flesh make the walleye one of the most important freshwater game fishes on the continent. In other states it is fished commercially, but in Missouri it is strictly a game fish.

Ecosystem connections

Like all fish, walleye begin life as tiny fry that are vulnerable and serve as food to many kinds of fish, but the walleye that survive and grow large often become the “big fish” of their waters, feeding almost exclusively on smaller fish.